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Section 44-47

Power to stop and search

(1)An authorisation under this subsection authorises any constable in uniform to stop a vehicle in an area or at a place specified in the authorisation and to search—

(a)the vehicle;

(b)the driver of the vehicle;

(c)a passenger in the vehicle;

(d)anything in or on the vehicle or carried by the driver or a passenger.

(2)An authorisation under this subsection authorises any constable in uniform to stop a pedestrian in an area or at a place specified in the authorisation and to search—

(a)the pedestrian;

(b)anything carried by him.

(3)An authorisation under subsection (1) or (2) may be given only if the person giving it considers it expedient for the prevention of acts of terrorism.

(4)An authorisation may be given—

(a)where the specified area or place is the whole or part of a police area outside Northern Ireland other than one mentioned in paragraph (b) or (c), by a police officer for the area who is of at least the rank of assistant chief constable;

(b)where the specified area or place is the whole or part of the metropolitan police district, by a police officer for the district who is of at least the rank of commander of the metropolitan police;

(c)where the specified area or place is the whole or part of the City of London, by a police officer for the City who is of at least the rank of commander in the City of London police force;

(d)where the specified area or place is the whole or part of Northern Ireland, by a member of the Royal Ulster Constabulary who is of at least the rank of assistant chief constable.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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Section 60

Powers to stop and search in anticipation of violence

[F1(1)If a police officer of or above the rank of inspector reasonably believes—

(a)that incidents involving serious violence may take place in any locality in his police area, and that it is expedient to give an authorisation under this section to prevent their occurrence, or

(b)that persons are carrying dangerous instruments or offensive weapons in any locality in his police area without good reason,

he may give an authorisation that the powers conferred by this section are to be exercisable at any place within that locality for a specified period not exceeding 24 hours.]

(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3)If it appears to [F2an officer of or above the rank of]superintendent that it is expedient to do so, having regard to offences which have, or are reasonably suspected to have, been committed in connection with any [F3activity] falling within the authorisation, he may direct that the authorisation shall continue in being for a further [F424] hours.

[F5(3A)If an inspector gives an authorisation under subsection (1) he must, as soon as it is practicable to do so, cause an officer of or above the rank of superintendent to be informed.]

(4)This section confers on any constable in uniform power—

(a)to stop any pedestrian and search him or anything carried by him for offensive weapons or dangerous instruments;

(b)to stop any vehicle and search the vehicle, its driver and any passenger for offensive weapons or dangerous instruments.

F6(4A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)A constable may, in the exercise of [F7the powers conferred by subsection (4) above], stop any person or vehicle and make any search he thinks fit whether or not he has any grounds for suspecting that the person or vehicle is carrying weapons or articles of that kind.

(6)If in the course of a search under this section a constable discovers a dangerous instrument or an article which he has reasonable grounds for suspecting to be an offensive weapon, he may seize it.

(7)This section applies (with the necessary modifications) to ships, aircraft and hovercraft as it applies to vehicles.

[F8F9(8)A person who fails]

F10(a)to stop, or to stop a vehicle; F9. . .

F9(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

when required to do so by a constable in the exercise of his powers under this section shall be liable on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one month or to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale or both.

(9)Any authorisation under this section shall be in writing signed by the officer giving it and shall specify [F11the grounds on which it is given and]the locality in which and the period during which the powers conferred by this section are exercisable and a direction under subsection (3) above shall also be given in writing or, where that is not practicable, recorded in writing as soon as it is practicable to do so.

[F8(9A)The preceding provisions of this section, so far as they relate to an authorisation by a member of the British Transport Police Force (including one who for the time being has the same powers and privileges as a member of a police force for a police area), shall have effect as if the references to a locality in his police area were references to a place specified in section 31(1)(a) to (f) of the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003.]

(10)Where a vehicle is stopped by a constable under this section, the driver shall be entitled to obtain a written statement that the vehicle was stopped under the powers conferred by this section if he applies for such a statement not later than the end of the period of twelve months from the day on which the vehicle was stopped F12. . ..

[F13(10A)A person who is searched by a constable under this section shall be entitled to obtain a written statement that he was searched under the powers conferred by this section if he applies for such a statement not later than the end of the period of twelve months from the day on which he was searched.]

(11)In this section—

[F14[F15“British Transport Police Force” means the constables appointed under section 53 of the British Transport Commission Act 1949;]]

“dangerous instruments” means instruments which have a blade or are sharply pointed;

“offensive weapon” has the meaning given by section 1(9) of the M1Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 [F16or, in relation to Scotland, section 47(4) of the M2Criminal Law (Consolidation) (Scotland) Act 1995]; and

F17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

“vehicle” includes a caravan as defined in section 29(1) of the M3Caravan Sites and Control of Development Act 1960.

[F18(11A)For the purposes of this section, a person carries a dangerous instrument or an offensive weapon if he has it in his possession.]

(12)The powers conferred by this section are in addition to and not in derogation of, any power otherwise conferred.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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Section 164

Power of constables to require production of driving licence and in certain cases statement of date of birth

(1)Any of the following persons—

(a)a person driving a motor vehicle on a road,

(b)a person whom a constable [F1or vehicle examiner] has reasonable cause to believe to have been the driver of a motor vehicle at a time when an accident occurred owing to its presence on a road,

(c)a person whom a constable [F1or vehicle examiner] has reasonable cause to believe to have committed an offence in relation to the use of a motor vehicle on a road, or

(d)a person—

(i)who supervises the holder of a provisional licence while the holder is driving a motor vehicle on a road, or

(ii)whom a constable [F1or vehicle examiner] has reasonable cause to believe was supervising the holder of a provisional licence while driving, at a time when an accident occurred owing to the presence of the vehicle on a road or at a time when an offence is suspected of having been committed by the holder of the provisional licence in relation to the use of the vehicle on a road,

must, on being so required by a constable [F1or vehicle examiner], produce his licence [F2and its counterpart] for examination, so as to enable the constable [F1or vehicle examiner] to ascertain the name and address of the holder of the licence, the date of issue, and the authority by which [F3they were] issued.

(2)[F4A person required by a constable under subsection (1) above to produce his licence] must in prescribed circumstances, on being so required by the constable, state his date of birth.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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Section 1

Riot

(1)Where 12 or more persons who are present together use or threaten unlawful violence for a common purpose and the conduct of them (taken together) is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his personal safety, each of the persons using unlawful violence for the common purpose is guilty of riot.

(2)It is immaterial whether or not the 12 or more use or threaten unlawful violence simultaneously.

(3)The common purpose may be inferred from conduct.

(4)No person of reasonable firmness need actually be, or be likely to be, present at the scene.

(5)Riot may be committed in private as well as in public places.

(6)A person guilty of riot is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years or a fine or both.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov.UK

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Section 2

Violent disorder

(1)Where 3 or more persons who are present together use or threaten unlawful violence and the conduct of them (taken together) is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his personal safety, each of the persons using or threatening unlawful violence is guilty of violent disorder.

(2)It is immaterial whether or not the 3 or more use or threaten unlawful violence simultaneously.

(3)No person of reasonable firmness need actually be, or be likely to be, present at the scene.

(4)Violent disorder may be committed in private as well as in public places.

(5)A person guilty of violent disorder is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years or a fine or both, or on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum or both.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov.UK

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Section 3

Affray

(1)A person is guilty of affray if he uses or threatens unlawful violence towards another and his conduct is such as would cause a person of reasonable firmness present at the scene to fear for his personal safety.

(2)Where 2 or more persons use or threaten the unlawful violence, it is the conduct of them taken together that must be considered for the purposes of subsection (1).

(3)For the purposes of this section a threat cannot be made by the use of words alone.

(4)No person of reasonable firmness need actually be, or be likely to be, present at the scene.

(5)Affray may be committed in private as well as in public places.

(6)F1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(7)A person guilty of affray is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years or a fine or both, or on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum or both.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov.UK

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Section 4

Fear or provocation of violence

(1)A person is guilty of an offence if he—

(a)uses towards another person threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour, or

(b)distributes or displays to another person any writing, sign or other visible representation which is threatening, abusive or insulting,

with intent to cause that person to believe that immediate unlawful violence will be used against him or another by any person, or to provoke the immediate use of unlawful violence by that person or another, or whereby that person is likely to believe that such violence will be used or it is likely that such violence will be provoked.

(2)An offence under this section may be committed in a public or a private place, except that no offence is committed where the words or behaviour are used, or the writing, sign or other visible representation is distributed or displayed, by a person inside a dwelling and the other person is also inside that or another dwelling.

(3)F2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale or both

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov.UK

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Section 4a

Intentional harassment, alarm or distress

(1)A person is guilty of an offence if, with intent to cause a person harassment, alarm or distress, he—

(a)uses threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour, or disorderly behaviour, or

(b)displays any writing, sign or other visible representation which is threatening, abusive or insulting,

thereby causing that or another person harassment, alarm or distress.

(2)An offence under this section may be committed in a public or a private place, except that no offence is committed where the words or behaviour are used, or the writing, sign or other visible representation is displayed, by a person inside a dwelling and the person who is harassed, alarmed or distressed is also inside that or another dwelling.

(3)It is a defence for the accused to prove—

(a)that he was inside a dwelling and had no reason to believe that the words or behaviour used, or the writing, sign or other visible representation displayed, would be heard or seen by a person outside that or any other dwelling, or

(b)that his conduct was reasonable.

(4)F4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or a fine not exceeding level 5 on the standard scale or both.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov.UK

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Section 5

Harassment, alarm or distress

(1)A person is guilty of an offence if he—

(a)uses threatening [F5or abusive] words or behaviour, or disorderly behaviour, or

(b)displays any writing, sign or other visible representation which is threatening [F5or abusive],

within the hearing or sight of a person likely to be caused harassment, alarm or distress thereby.

(2)An offence under this section may be committed in a public or a private place, except that no offence is committed where the words or behaviour are used, or the writing, sign or other visible representation is displayed, by a person inside a dwelling and the other person is also inside that or another dwelling.

(3)It is a defence for the accused to prove—

(a)that he had no reason to believe that there was any person within hearing or sight who was likely to be caused harassment, alarm or distress, or

(b)that he was inside a dwelling and had no reason to believe that the words or behaviour used, or the writing, sign or other visible representation displayed, would be heard or seen by a person outside that or any other dwelling, or

(c)that his conduct was reasonable.

(4)F6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(5)F6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(6)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 3 on the standard scale.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov.UK

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Section 1

Power of constable to stop and search persons, vehicles etc

(1)A constable may exercise any power conferred by this section—

(a)in any place to which at the time when he proposes to exercise the power the public or any section of the public has access, on payment or otherwise, as of right or by virtue of express or implied permission; or

(b)in any other place to which people have ready access at the time when he proposes to exercise the power but which is not a dwelling.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) to (5) below, a constable—

(a)may search—

(i)any person or vehicle;

(ii)anything which is in or on a vehicle,

for stolen or prohibited articles [F1, any article to which subsection (8A) below applies or any firework to which subsection (8B) below applies] ; and

(b)may detain a person or vehicle for the purpose of such a search.

(3)This section does not give a constable power to search a person or vehicle or anything in or on a vehicle unless he has reasonable grounds for suspecting that he will find stolen or prohibited articles [F2, any article to which subsection (8A) below applies or any firework to which subsection (8B) below applies] .

(4)If a person is in a garden or yard occupied with and used for the purposes of a dwelling or on other land so occupied and used, a constable may not search him in the exercise of the power conferred by this section unless the constable has reasonable grounds for believing—

(a)that he does not reside in the dwelling; and

(b)that he is not in the place in question with the express or implied permission of a person who resides in the dwelling.

(5)If a vehicle is in a garden or yard occupied with and used for the purposes of a dwelling or on other land so occupied and used, a constable may not search the vehicle or anything in or on it in the exercise of the power conferred by this section unless he has reasonable grounds for believing—

(a)that the person in charge of the vehicle does not reside in the dwelling; and

(b)that the vehicle is not in the place in question with the express or implied permission of a person who resides in the dwelling.

(6)If in the course of such a search a constable discovers an article which he has reasonable grounds for suspecting to be a stolen or prohibited article [F3, an article to which subsection (8A) below applies or a firework to which subsection (8B) below applies] , he may seize it.

(7)An article is prohibited for the purposes of this Part of this Act if it is—

(a)an offensive weapon; or

(b)an article—

(i)made or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with an offence to which this sub-paragraph applies; or

(ii)intended by the person having it with him for such use by him or by some other person.

(8)The offences to which subsection (7)(b)(i) above applies are—

(a)burglary;

(b)theft;

(c)offences under section 12 of the M1Theft Act 1968 (taking motor vehicle or other conveyance without authority); F4. . .

[F5(d)fraud (contrary to section 1 of the Fraud Act 2006)][F6; and

(e)offences under section 1 of the Criminal Damage Act 1971 (destroying or damaging property).]

[F7(8A)This subsection applies to any article in relation to which a person has committed, or is committing or is going to commit an offence under section 139 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988.]

[F8(8B)This subsection applies to any firework which a person possesses in contravention of a prohibition imposed by fireworks regulations.

(8C)In this section—

(a)“firework” shall be construed in accordance with the definition of “fireworks” in section 1(1) of the Fireworks Act 2003; and

(b)“fireworks regulations” has the same meaning as in that Act.]

(9)In this Part of this Act “offensive weapon” means any article—

(a)made or adapted for use for causing injury to persons; or

(b)intended by the person having it with him for such use by him or by some other person.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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Section 3

Duty to make records concerning searches.

(1)Where a constable has carried out a search in the exercise of any such power as is mentioned in section 2(1) above, other than a search—

(a)under section 6 below; or

(b)under section 27(2) of the M1Aviation Security Act 1982, he shall make a record of it in writing unless it is not practicable to do so.

(2)If—

(a)a constable is required by subsection (1) above to make a record of a search; but

(b)it is not practicable to make the record on the spot,

he shall make it as soon as practicable after the completion of the search.

(3)The record of a search of a person shall include a note of his name, if the constable knows it, but a constable may not detain a person to find out his name.

(4)If a constable does not know the name of a person whom he has searched, the record of the search shall include a note otherwise describing that person.

(5)The record of a search of a vehicle shall include a note describing the vehicle.

(6)The record of a search of a person or a vehicle—

(a)shall state—

(i)the object of the search;

(ii)the grounds for making it;

(iii)the date and time when it was made;

(iv)the place where it was made;

(v)whether anything, and if so what, was found;

(vi)whether any, and if so what, injury to a person or damage to property appears to the constable to have resulted from the search; and

(b)shall identify the constable making it.

(7)If a constable who conducted a search of a person made a record of it, the person who was searched shall be entitled to a copy of the record if he asks for one before the end of the period specified in subsection (9) below.

(8)If—

(a)the owner of a vehicle which has been searched or the person who was in charge of the vehicle at the time when it was searched asked for a copy of the record of the search before the end of the period specified in subsection (9) below; and

(b)the constable who conducted the search made a record of it,

the person who made the request shall be entitled to a copy.

(9)The period mentioned in subsections (7) and (8) above is the period of 12 months beginning with the date on which the search was made.

(10)The requirements imposed by this section with regard to records of searches of vehicles shall apply also to records of searches of vessels, aircraft and hovercraft.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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Section 8

Power of justice of the peace to authorise entry and search of premises.

(1)If on an application made by a constable a justice of the peace is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for believing—

(a)that [F1an indictable offence] has been committed; and

(b)that there is material on premises [F2mentioned in subsection (1A) below] which is likely to be of substantial value (whether by itself or together with other material) to the investigation of the offence; and

(c)that the material is likely to be relevant evidence; and

(d)that it does not consist of or include items subject to legal privilege, excluded material or special procedure material; and

(e)that any of the conditions specified in subsection (3) below applies,

he may issue a warrant authorising a constable to enter and search the premises [F3in relation to each set of premises specified in the application] .

[F4(1A)The premises referred to in subsection (1)(b) above are—

(a)one or more sets of premises specified in the application (in which case the application is for a “specific premises warrant”); or

(b)any premises occupied or controlled by a person specified in the application, including such sets of premises as are so specified (in which case the application is for an “all premises warrant”).

(1B)If the application is for an all premises warrant, the justice of the peace must also be satisfied—

(a)that because of the particulars of the offence referred to in paragraph (a) of subsection (1) above, there are reasonable grounds for believing that it is necessary to search premises occupied or controlled by the person in question which are not specified in the application in order to find the material referred to in paragraph (b) of that subsection; and

(b)that it is not reasonably practicable to specify in the application all the premises which he occupies or controls and which might need to be searched.]

[F5(1C)The warrant may authorise entry to and search of premises on more than one occasion if, on the application, the justice of the peace is satisfied that it is necessary to authorise multiple entries in order to achieve the purpose for which he issues the warrant.

(1D)If it authorises multiple entries, the number of entries authorised may be unlimited, or limited to a maximum.]

(2)A constable may seize and retain anything for which a search has been authorised under subsection (1) above.

(3)The conditions mentioned in subsection (1)(e) above are—

(a)that it is not practicable to communicate with any person entitled to grant entry to the premises;

(b)that it is practicable to communicate with a person entitled to grant entry to the premises but it is not practicable to communicate with any person entitled to grant access to the evidence;

(c)that entry to the premises will not be granted unless a warrant is produced;

(d)that the purpose of a search may be frustrated or seriously prejudiced unless a constable arriving at the premises can secure immediate entry to them.

(4)In this Act “relevant evidence”, in relation to an offence, means anything that would be admissible in evidence at a trial for the offence.

(5)The power to issue a warrant conferred by this section is in addition to any such power otherwise conferred.

[F6(6)This section applies in relation to a relevant offence (as defined in section 28D(4) of the Immigration Act 1971) as it applies in relation to [F1an indictable offence] .

[F7(7)Section 4 of the Summary Jurisdiction (Process) Act 1881 (execution of process of English courts in Scotland) shall apply to a warrant issued on the application of an officer of Revenue and Customs under this section by virtue of section 114 below.]]

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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Section 16

Execution of warrants.

(1)A warrant to enter and search premises may be executed by any constable.

(2)Such a warrant may authorise persons to accompany any constable who is executing it.

[F1(2A)A person so authorised has the same powers as the constable whom he accompanies in respect of—

(a)the execution of the warrant, and

(b)the seizure of anything to which the warrant relates.

(2B)But he may exercise those powers only in the company, and under the supervision, of a constable.]

(3)Entry and search under a warrant must be within [F2three months] from the date of its issue.

[F3(3A)If the warrant is an all premises warrant, no premises which are not specified in it may be entered or searched unless a police officer of at least the rank of inspector has in writing authorised them to be entered.]

[F4(3B)No premises may be entered or searched for the second or any subsequent time under a warrant which authorises multiple entries unless a police officer of at least the rank of inspector has in writing authorised that entry to those premises.]

(4)Entry and search under a warrant must be at a reasonable hour unless it appears to the constable executing it that the purpose of a search may be frustrated on an entry at a reasonable hour.

(5)Where the occupier of premises which are to be entered and searched is present at the time when a constable seeks to execute a warrant to enter and search them, the constable—

(a)shall identify himself to the occupier and, if not in uniform, shall produce to him documentary evidence that he is a constable;

(b)shall produce the warrant to him; and

(c)shall supply him with a copy of it.

(6)Where—

(a)the occupier of such premises is not present at the time when a constable seeks to execute such a warrant; but

(b)some other person who appears to the constable to be in charge of the premises is present,

subsection (5) above shall have effect as if any reference to the occupier were a reference to that other person.

(7)If there is no person who appears to the constable to be in charge of the premises, he shall leave a copy of the warrant in a prominent place on the premises.

(8)A search under a warrant may only be a search to the extent required for the purpose for which the warrant was issued.

(9)A constable executing a warrant shall make an endorsement on it stating—

(a)whether the articles or persons sought were found; and

(b)whether any articles were seized, other than articles which were sought

[F5and, unless the warrant is a F6. . . warrant specifying one set of premises only, he shall do so separately in respect of each set of premises entered and searched, which he shall in each case state in the endorsement.]

[F7(10)A warrant shall be returned to the appropriate person mentioned in subsection (10A) below—

(a)when it has been executed; or

(b)in the case of a specific premises warrant which has not been executed, or an all premises warrant, or any warrant authorising multiple entries, upon the expiry of the period of three months referred to in subsection (3) above or sooner.

(10A)The appropriate person is—

(a)if the warrant was issued by a justice of the peace, the designated officer for the local justice area in which the justice was acting when he issued the warrant;

(b)if it was issued by a judge, the appropriate officer of the court from which he issued it.]

(11)A warrant which is returned under subsection (10) above shall be retained for 12 months from its return—

(a)by the [F8designated officer for the local justice area] , if it was returned under paragraph (i) of that subsection; and

(b)by the appropriate officer, if it was returned under paragraph (ii).

(12)If during the period for which a warrant is to be retained the occupier of [F9premises] to which it relates asks to inspect it, he shall be allowed to do so.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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Section 76

Reasonable force for purposes of self-defence etc

(1)This section applies where in proceedings for an offence—

(a)an issue arises as to whether a person charged with the offence (“D”) is entitled to rely on a defence within subsection (2), and

(b)the question arises whether the degree of force used by D against a person (“V”) was reasonable in the circumstances.

(2)The defences are—

(a)the common law defence of self-defence; and

(b)the defences provided by section 3(1) of the Criminal Law Act 1967 (c. 58) or section 3(1) of the Criminal Law Act (Northern Ireland) 1967 (c. 18 (N.I.)) (use of force in prevention of crime or making arrest).

(3)The question whether the degree of force used by D was reasonable in the circumstances is to be decided by reference to the circumstances as D believed them to be, and subsections (4) to (8) also apply in connection with deciding that question.

(4)If D claims to have held a particular belief as regards the existence of any circumstances—

(a)the reasonableness or otherwise of that belief is relevant to the question whether D genuinely held it; but

(b)if it is determined that D did genuinely hold it, D is entitled to rely on it for the purposes of subsection (3), whether or not—

(i)it was mistaken, or

(ii)(if it was mistaken) the mistake was a reasonable one to have made.

(5)But subsection (4)(b) does not enable D to rely on any mistaken belief attributable to intoxication that was voluntarily induced.

(6)The degree of force used by D is not to be regarded as having been reasonable in the circumstances as D believed them to be if it was disproportionate in those circumstances.

(7)In deciding the question mentioned in subsection (3) the following considerations are to be taken into account (so far as relevant in the circumstances of the case)—

(a)that a person acting for a legitimate purpose may not be able to weigh to a nicety the exact measure of any necessary action; and

(b)that evidence of a person’s having only done what the person honestly and instinctively thought was necessary for a legitimate purpose constitutes strong evidence that only reasonable action was taken by that person for that purpose.

(8)Subsection (7) is not to be read as preventing other matters from being taken into account where they are relevant to deciding the question mentioned in subsection (3).

(9)This section is intended to clarify the operation of the existing defences mentioned in subsection (2).

(10)In this section—

(a)“legitimate purpose” means—

(i)the purpose of self-defence under the common law, or

(ii)the prevention of crime or effecting or assisting in the lawful arrest of persons mentioned in the provisions referred to in subsection (2)(b);

(b)references to self-defence include acting in defence of another person; and

(c)references to the degree of force used are to the type and amount of force used.

SOURCE = Legislation.Gov

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